(13) Reporting: Reports and Summaries (B)
3. Tense forms in reports and summaries
English မွာ what people say or think ကို report လုပ္တဲ့အခါ စဥ္းစားရမွာက
Tense forms in reports and summaries ေတြဟာ က်န္တာေတြနဲ႔ အတူတူျဖစ္တယ္ ဆုိတာပါပဲ။
လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ (၁၀)ႏွစ္က Andrew Brown ေရးခဲ့တဲ့ စာတစ္ေစာင္
I am twenty years old and I am at University studying engineering. I take my final exams next month and I will finish university in July.
I want to take a year off and travel round the world. I will need to make some money while I am traveling so I would like to learn to teach English as a second language so that I can make some money while I am abroad. A friend of mine has recommended your course very highly. She also gave me some details, but I would like to ask a few more questions.
What courses do you have in the summer and when do they start? How much do the courses cost? Is there an examination at the end?
I look forward to hearing from you.
Andrew Brown ရဲ႕ story ကို ေရးခ်င္တယ္ဆိုရင္ ေအာက္ပါအတုိင္းေရႏုိင္တယ္။
When Andrew was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month at the university. He wanted to travel abroad after he had finished his course at the university, but he would need to earn some money while he was abroad so he wanted to learn to teach English as a foreign language. A friend had recommended a course but Andrew needed more information. So he wrote to the school and asked them when their courses started and how much they were. He also wanted to know if there was an examination at the end of the course.
လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့ (၁၀)ႏွစ္က ျဖစ္ခဲ့တာေတြအေၾကာင္း ေရးခ်င္ရင္ past tense form ကို သံုးရတယ္။
Andrew က ဘာေတြ ေရးခဲ့တယ္ဆုိတာ reporting or summarizing လုပ္ခ်င္ရင္ေတာ့ ဒီလုိေလး ေရးႏုိင္တယ္။
Andrew told me that when he was 22, he was an engineering student in his last month…. အထက္ကအတိုင္းသာ ဆက္ေရးလုိက္ေတာ့ေလ။ Past tense နဲ႔ပဲ ေရးရပါတယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ tense form in reports and summaries in English ေတြဟာ က်န္တာေတြနဲ႔ အတူတူပါပဲလို႔ ေျပာခဲ့တာ။
ရံခါေတာ့ past tense form နဲ႔ present tense form ေရြးၿပီးေရးရတာလဲ ရွိတယ္။
အတိတ္အေၾကာင္း ေျပာေနတယ္ ဒါေပမယ့္ အဲဒါဟာ အခုထိ မွန္ကန္ေနတုန္းပဲဆုိရင္ အဲဒါကုိ အခုထိမွန္ကန္ေနတယ္ဆုိတာ ေဖာ္ျပဖုိ႔အတြက္ present tense form ကိုပဲ သံုးရတယ္။
John said he had stayed at the Shangri-la because it is the most comfortable hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro is her favorite actor.
Helen said she loves visiting New York.
ဒါမွမဟုတ္ရင္ Past tense form နဲ႔လဲ ေရးလုိ႔ရတယ္။
John said he had stayed at the Shangri-la because it was the most comfortable hotel in town.
Mary said she enjoyed the film because Robert de Niro was her favorite actor.
Helen said she loved visiting New York.
လူတုိင္းသိတဲ့အရာဟာ မွန္တယ္လုိ႔ ေျပာခ်င္ရင္ ပံုမွန္အားျဖင့္ present tense ကုိသံုးတယ္။
Michael said he had always wanted to climb Everest because it is the highest mountain in the world.
Mary said she loved visiting New York because it is such an exciting city.
4. To infinitive in reports and summaries
Reports/ summaries ေရးဖုိ႔ decide, hope, intend စတဲ့ thinking/ feeling နဲ႔ဆုိင္တဲ့ verb ေတြရဲ႕ေနာက္မွာ to infinitive ကုိသံုးတယ္။
“I think I will start all over again”.
He decided to start all over again.
“I am going to write to the newspaper about it”.
She intended to write to the newspaper about it.
Agree, promise, refuse စတဲ့ verbs of saying ေတြေနာက္မွာလဲ to infinitive ကုိသံုးတယ္။
“I can do the shopping for you if you like”.
He agreed to do the shopping for me.
“I am sorry. I would love to help you but I’m afraid I can’t”.
She refused to help me.
အခ်ိဳ႕ verb ေတြေနာက္မွာ direct object နဲ႔ to infinitive ေတြလုိက္တယ္။
Advise, ask, encourage, invite, order, remind, tell, warn, expect, intend, want, would like, would prefer
“I think you should turn the lights out now”.
She reminded me to turn the lights out.
“Be very careful, children. The sea can be very dangerous so please don’t go in the water”.
She warned the children not to go in the water.